Claire Hastings

Huda Kattan Eyebrows
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During the nineties and well into the early 2000s, thin, barely-there eyebrows were all the rage. If you googled photos of celebrities or even found old Facebook photos of your friends, you will notice that everyone from your high school friend Melissa to Christina Aguilera and Gwen Stefani took pride in their thin eyebrows. Then, several years ago, people’s perspective on beauty started to shift. Celebrities, regular people and even beauticians began to notice just how much the frame and proper fullness of the eyebrows can affect not only the shape of a person’s face, but actually enhance their beauty. Prominent eyebrows took center stage, and then the frenzy was taken to an entirely new level.

Rumor has it that thanks to Cara Delevingne, sales of tweezers have dropped drastically as everyone, all of a sudden, wanted their brows, thick, voluminous, feathery, wild and powerful. People went to extreme lengths and the overworked brows became an object of ridicule that the beauty community begged for to stop. 

Since then, people have been doing their best to let their natural eyebrows grow back, and those who couldn’t, resorted to trusty brow gels, pomades, and pencils that would help them fill in the blanks and cover up both the insane and unflattering thinness and at times hairless spots and scarceness in their brows. Now, while there is nothing wrong with wanting to have nice and symmetrical-looking brows that frame your face and add to your beautiful features, there is apparently a dark secret lurking behind overly prominent brows.

The study of narcissism

There have been numerous studies conducted on narcissism and how to spot a narcissistic person. The ‘red flags’ ranged from asserting authority and emphasizing their superiority over others, excessive flattering and/or harshness towards other people, incredible manipulative skills, blame shifting, the works. They also exhibit excessive amounts of confidence, foster a strong belief that they are more special than anyone else, and constantly crave and demand external validation. However, the worst traits of narcissists are that they are incredibly exploitative and will use anything and anyone to get what they want, which is inextricably linked with their utter and complete lack of empathy. It is hard to be sympathetic and considerate when you’re your own number one, and for that matter, only priority.

However, these are all internal traits, so in order to uncover a narcissist you often get burned by them first and come to this realization once the damage has already been done. Now, however, there are new studies that suggest that there is a single prominent physical trait that can help you recognize a narcissist right off the bat.

The tell-tale sign

Eyebrow Psychology

A number of studies, those published in Psychology Today, Business Insider and Independent, just to cite a few, have come to the conclusion that aside from the fact that these people are usually highly attractive, wear luxurious clothes and are impeccably neat, there is one more thing that will help you spot them, one that is perhaps more obvious and quicker to spot than all others – full and highly prominent eyebrows. As stated in Psychology Today, “Eyebrows may be particularly important to people high on the personality trait of grandiose narcissism’ as they foster a yearning to be admired and recognized – which granted, brows have the power to do. As a result, they might “seek to maintain distinct eyebrows to facilitate others’ ability to notice, recognize, and remember them; thereby increasing their likability and reinforcing their overly positive self-views.” This comes as no surprise as not only do narcissist yearn to be liked, but they have an innate initial likability that draws people in in the first place, that is, before the mask is removed and they see what kind of person they’re actually dealing with.

Another study conducted by  Miranda Giacomin and Nicholas Rule involved recruiting a number of people who were shown photographs of people’s eyebrows alone and the verdict of the target group happen to coincide with the level of estimated narcissism in those who were subjected to the test. This research, according to the conductors will prove highly beneficial in the future as it will provide people with the “ability to identify dark personality traits at zero-acquaintance” and thus prevent any chance of attraction, infatuation and even potential exploitation.

It appears that the eyebrows can be a true life saver, a red flag if you will that can tell a person to steer clear of a narcissist. However, although we don’t disagree with the result of the study, we have to take into account that thick and well-groomed eyebrows are a global trend that millions of people have embraced simply because they realized they made their faces look more shapely and attractive. And while yes, a narcissist’s desire is to be more attractive and alluring, we shouldn’t jump to conclusions based on the brows alone.

There is a long list of narcissist-typical behavior that can be easily spotted, and if a person doesn’t exhibit any of the aforementioned traits, perhaps it would be unfair to write them off solely on the fact that they have trendy full brows. There are probably people out there who simply followed a beauty trend, just like millions of people follow fashion trends, and they couldn’t all be narcissists. The final verdict is – be wary, take the brows as sign number one, but look for other clues as well and give people the benefit of the doubt.  

To say that beards have had their ups and downs would be a huge understatement. During the course of history, beards have been on a real roller-coaster. According to The Effects of Facial Hair on Perception Formation, in ancient Egypt, only the poor used to have facial hair. When it comes to Europe, the perception of beards shifted during the course of several centuries. At one point, only the nobility were allowed to have them and those belonging to lower social and economic classes were forced to ‘take them off’. Minds were changed throughout history, and in the 18th century, beards were “viewed as an option only for people that are old, mad, or clueless”. At times, it even went so far as to signify low morality or even a criminal history. By the end of the 18th century, the verdict was in and beards were cool again, and rocked by such historic figures as American president Lincoln and even Harvard boasted the fact that all enrolled men had them. The rest is history, or better yet, present, because it seems to us, living in this time, that beards have never been more popular than today. Whether you’re a hipster, an artist, a physician – there is no stigma around the amount or style of your facial hair, but what does your beard specifically convey? That is a question we’ll be answering today.

Hello there handsome

The same paper, which used numerous renowned studies as its sources, reveals that there is a strong correlation between beardedness and levels of not only attractiveness and masculinity, but also health and even the ability to make a good husband and father. Translation – bearded men are perceived as ones who have all the qualities a typical woman could ever want in a man. Not only do they look sexy, but also a tad or a lot rugged, capable, reliable and even sexually competent and fertile, which makes them perfect husband and father material. The level of attractiveness is so high that, in fact, bearded men are more likely to ‘get the girl’ than clean-shaven men. On top of all this, beards also convey trustworthiness and it’s a life fact that relationships are built on trust, so there go additional points to bearded men. The only noted downside is that bearded men are perceived as less groomed and dirtier, which could be a repelling factor, but as we all know, the bearded men of today are highly diligent when it comes to grooming – resorting to special shampoos, opting for chemical peel, using conditioners, balms and oils, so perhaps this theory no longer applies as bearded men are actually now more inclined towards grooming than others.

A second opinion

Of course, there are other studies which the paper cited that actually show a negative correlation between beardedness and masculinity. Namely, according to the findings of Dixson and Vasey, bearded men were associated with aging and loss of sexual competency, as well as an increased level of aggression in comparison to clean-shaven men.

More good news

There used to exist a common misconception that bearded men signified rebelliousness and lack of responsibility, but the aforementioned paper cites studies that came to a conclusion that this could not be farther from the truth. In fact, as beards have immensely become associated with kindness and trustworthiness, employers have become increasingly keen on hiring bearded men. The paper states something about profile pictures on platforms such as LinkedIn and the fact that bearded men are a lot more likely to be called for a job interview and actually land a job. Reportedly ‘Bearded men are ranked higher by possible employers in categories that are important in the workplace, such as competency, composure and personality’ as well as expertise and maturity, especially in occupations related to sales and communication with clients and customers as sales highly depend on the level of trust a client or buyer places in the hands of the seller. 

However, an interesting piece of information is that most men in high managerial and CEO positions are clean-shaven men. This is presumably due to the fact that bearded fellas are perceived as more suited for jobs that require less social interaction and aren’t as creative and ‘entrepreneurial’ as shaven men. This is sort of contradicts the study that states that bearded men are generally perceived as more aggressive – which in business terms translates as assertive, but the evidence is still inconclusive, so let’s just say that for now, bearded men will get the job done, but perhaps won’t land a managerial position.

Psychology of fashion

Finally – the mustachedness

Even though they get masculinity points for actually being able to grow any kind of facial hair, when it comes to the level of attractiveness, men with mustaches are way lower on the scale compared to bearded men, as according to the paper, “mustachedness is predicted to have a negative correlation between intelligence and attractiveness due to a stigma that has formed against mustaches and how they are the “mark of the beast.” Goatees are safe, in a way, but they are kind of passé, so if you want facial hair, either go big or go home.

The sad news– at least for beardless men – is that in this climate, they are definitely perceived as less intelligent, rugged and attractive, but trends come and go, so perhaps the American Psycho clean and sleek look will come back in style once again. For now, dear men, groom those beards and get those girls.  

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What is the first image that pops into your mind at the mention of the phrase “I wear the pants in this house”? This is just one bit of evidence as to how fashion and imagery have a profound impact on our perception, beliefs, as well as our judgment. For decades, the image of a man wearing a well-tailored suit represented authority, power, and strength. A few fashion revolutions and creative minds later starting with Coco Chanel’s suit for women, the once men-only item has become a staple of feminine success.

Some may see it as a corporate, constricting, dull manner of dressing, yet it represents freedom and empowerment for which women fought very hard. Despite this inherent dichotomy of the suit, this simple, but powerful combination of garments has once again seen a new wave of appreciation by some of the most popular brands in the world. It has brought on new fashion questions, and a new direction of the suit’s fast-advancing evolution.

The Power of Perception

No matter how much we like to think highly of ourselves when it comes to understanding our fellow humans, we still do judge the book by its cover. Studies have shown that even the slightest difference in office attire can lead to a wide spectrum of conclusions, from one extreme to another – a single undone button can suddenly make a woman seem provocative rather than professional. The same effect can be achieved with a skirt that is just below, or just above the knees.

This seems especially true for ladies who hold more powerful, management positions, as they come with greater expectations and responsibility, associated with more conservative attire. This image alone, or how a woman’s dress code can make or break the key impression she leaves on her potential client or employer, leads us to make more subdued, modest-looking clothes.

The Perception of Power

On the flip side of the power game, we ourselves are deeply shaped by our clothing decisions. It may sound absurd to those who are unfamiliar with the concept, but it’s not just our confidence that is shaped by our clothes. Wearing a suit actually puts your brain in a different gear, so to speak.

As professor of psychology Abraham Rutchick explained, the feeling of power that comes with formal clothes is the driving force of our changing thinking patterns. Simply put, wearing a suit can actually push your mind into more abstract, big-picture thinking processes. So, ladies, if you wish to have an added advantage over your everyday mindset, by all means, put on that pantsuit – it’s good for business.

Image Source: Instagram - @Kay-ttitude

Brands to suit you (up)

Ever since women started taking positions of power and thus introduced their own, creative touch to the traditional suit, brands have started to be much more playful with the trend. As a timeless one, much like the little black dress or the classy black pump, suits will never go out of style – they only tend to be shapeshifters in order to survive the constant need for diversity.

From the classic black suit as seen on Dakota Johnson, all the way to the velvet blue beauty worn by Cara Delevingne, the need for suits has grown rapidly over the past few years. Think: from the classics such as Versace with a more colorful twist, all the way to quirky cuts made by Gabriele Colangelo, exquisite for the office as well as the cocktail party with the clients.

The Changing Tides

Once upon a time, the classic suit was considered the only appropriate office attire. Now that we have women in positions of power around the globe, from Angelina Jolie to Hilary Clinton, they are the ones making and mending the rules. This staple of style is no longer a symbol of exclusively male power, but the one of feminine victory.

Perhaps we cannot erase decades of inequality and how what we wear affects the judgment of others, but we can certainly try our best to be the embodiment of the change that was long overdue – and the power suit is a good place to start.

We all remember the famous study on how wearing a white coat impacts our perception of our identity as well as the profound influence on our performance of a particular task – hence proving the notion of “enclothed cognition”. The sum of the experiment states that when the subjects were told that the coat was a lab coat, they were able to perform their tasks better, with greater focus and clarity, while those who were told it was a simple painter’s coat had no positive improvement in their performance.

So, if such an isolated example of a single piece of wardrobe has a monumental effect on our behavior, self-perception and performance, to what extent does our choice of wardrobe affect our self-image on a more permanent level? It’s yet another chicken-and-egg conundrum that makes us wonder how much we choose to ascribe value to a garment, and how much that particular item symbolizes our own value.


The Power Pose Effect

When you are anxious before a presentation, try doing a power pose. According to Amy Cuddy, a social psychologist studying the power of body language, a simple change in posture can completely alter your self-perception, increase your confidence and turn around a situation to your advantage. In short, our nonverbal cues are a significant part of our self-creation.

The same could be said for our clothing, especially since it makes for a large part of our visual presentation to the world. We have a long-standing culture of what counts as a business-worthy outfit, what it means to wear fitted clothes and what is considered “unconventional” or “rebellious”. The moment we put on a pantsuit or a pair of red Converse shoes, we’re not just making a statement, but we are literally putting ourselves into a predefined role that comes with a predetermined set of behaviors. It’s only natural, then, that those five-inch heels literally elevate your look, and a pair of fitness leggings puts us in the workout mindset. 


The Qualities we Ascribe to Clothes

To elaborate a bit on the fact that our clothes already have personalities, let’s delve deeper into the matter of our everyday wears. Every color, fabric and shape have meaning, and when combined, they fit into a certain standard. Take, for instance, the little black dress. The color is associated with elegance, sophistication and power, the fabric of your choice will also invoke certain qualities, such as satin or silk that represent luxury and opulence.

Depending on the current fashion trends, we also give importance to the form of clothes, and so the oversized knitted pullover has become the go-to comfort piece, while maxi skirts with floral patterns epitomize the free-spirited boho movement. Naturally, when you put on a long, backless satin dress, you will feel like royalty, while based on professor Karen Pine’s research, a Superman T-shirt will instantly give you more confidence, and wearing a sweater during a maths test will help you get a higher score.

The Suitability Factor

And once again, society has developed a whole set of factors that play into the choice of your wardrobe and add to the intricate cycle of influence between our self and our style. Every culture, religion and the mindset of each society label a piece of clothing as appropriate or not for any given situation and environment. So, with the flow of evolution, our perception of clothes changes and what was once considered as upscale fashion is now outdated and ridiculous, while new styles emerge as the most desirable ones with which we wish to emulate beauty, success and savvy.

That is why brands adapt their creativity to respond to the needs and fluctuations of time and trends. So, one summer, it’s all about one-piece swimsuits, while by the time your next vacation comes, you’ll be wearing a bikini with vibrant colors that is designed to accentuate your curves. Of course, you won’t be wearing the satin dress to the beach, just like you won’t be wearing flipflops to the office, so when you hit a fashion jackpot with your style choices, your confidence and your self-esteem will flourish.

The Perpetual Creation of Self

The cultural and society-approved quality of our clothes is one, while our own personality is another part of this ever-changing equation. But there’s another curious element that will always give fluidity to the idea of using clothes as a means of self-expression, and that is, as the sociologist Georg Simmel would put it, the paradox of wanting to fit in and stand out at the same time.

This inner conflict is something we perpetually face when we open our wardrobes. We have the opportunity to wear a combination that screams uniqueness, but do we risk being judged and ostracized for our creativity, or do we put on the appropriate apparel for the occasion, thus blending in? In making a choice, we create ourselves every day, we conform, confront, and suppress our identity, either to be recognized as an integral part of our culture, or to be the labeled as the quirky lady who wears pajamas and Jimmy Choo boots to the office.

We’re all guilty of suffering through hours on end wearing the most uncomfortable, albeit stylish pair of high heels to give off a sense of domination and (although we may not always admit it) to be more attractive to the opposite sex. The appeasing nature of heels has been scientifically proven. A 2015 study by Guéguen found that men were more likely to be willing to participate in a survey when asked by a woman wearing high heels rather than flat-soled shoes. Hence, there is nothing new or unusual in resorting to our wardrobe choices to achieve something – whether it’s increasing your focus, leaving a lasting impression or attracting a potential mate, fashion is a powerful tool.

But with the rise of athleisure, and top models embracing the off-duty sporty look that emphasizes comfort over elegance (or a strangely alluring combination of both), so-called “street style” has become a reflection of a mindset that is changing the face of consumerism.

Every romantic movie in recent Hollywood history has the cliché scene of a sad girl binge eating on Ben & Jerry’s in her old college sweatshirt – but as feeble as this concept may seem, it actually has roots in our natural behavior. According to a study conducted by Professor Karen Pine, almost 60% of women said they’d wear a baggy top when depressed, and only 2% would do the same when feeling happy.

Simply put, our clothing decisions are driven by our mood, and we share a specific group of “happy clothes” that we only wear when we’re not feeling low, and that includes our figure-enhancing and well-tailored pieces. So, what’s this growing hype over grey hoodies and oversized knitted sweaters?

It seems that although the movie scene is a universal one, the fashion tides do have a profound impact on the perception of any given garment. And so, with the rise of the Hadid sisters, Kendal Jenner, Rihanna and Beyoncé, all of whom have a unique influence on fashion and beauty trends creation, we have come to perceive the baggy and the saggy as the new go-to, rebellious outfit that can even pair well with luxe high heels and be considered haute couture. Case in point, Gigi paired a Nickelodeon cropped top with high-end Stuart Weitzman boots only to have it voted one of her best looks of the year.

With the news, Instagram feeds and other social media outlets flooded by such images and titles that celebrate the rise of casual and comfortable, it’s no wonder that we are transitioning towards a more comfort-oriented fashion mindset, which profoundly affects our shopping decisions.

Add to that the convenience of shopping online, and you suddenly find yourself isolated from the once dominant in-store factors that would steer our purchasing decisions, such as the style-specific fragrances or upbeat music that keeps you in a good mood. That makes it easier for the modern consumer to focus on the visual appeal of their chosen items, check online reviews of (dis)satisfied customers and make an informed decision without ever leaving the chair. Talk about multi-layered, omnipresent shopping comfort!

And, naturally, both existing and novel brands follow suit. These new tendencies in fashion perception and greater emphasis on comfort encourage consumers to make more comfortable choices such as the all-time favorite Birkenstock shoes that are the perfect example of “comfort food” of fashion, or wearing your old college hoodie, not because you’re depressed, but because it’s, in fact, fashionable.

Since comfort is ‘in’, it makes perfect sense that what used to be the only acceptable representation of “fitting” clothes is also gaining a new shape, or the lack thereof. While we might still choose the form-fitted sweater for an office event (although that’s questionable at this point), the idea of flattering and desirable is now often equated with chunky footwear, loose and large shirts, tees, ripped jeans and all things several sizes over your own.

Perhaps with the idea of comfort creeping more and more into the fashion universe, we are, actually, finally leaving our comfort zone of norms, and stepping into the realm of new forms of self-expression: ones that do not insist on accentuated curves.

We are creatures with a love for material things, preferably an abundance of them, and clothes are no exception. In them, we look for and see  the reflection of our ever-changing identity, which in turn creates the urge for constant adaptations in style choices, for the purpose of refining our self-expression and self-perception (Niinimäki, 2010) With the global financial crisis came an alternation in the minds of consumers – it forced us to think in and act on necessities as opposed to desires. At least to an extent, that is.

The factors that made a difference

In addition to the difficult state of the economy all over the world, the evolution of fashion and us, its consumers, has been affected by several other related events. Environmental challenges have also shaped the mind of the consumer to think about the wellbeing of the planet, and the long-lasting effects or need for instant (purchase) gratification.

Growing unemployment rates, decreasing living standards in many corners of the world, and the unveiling of the myriad of unethical practices across fashion’s supply chains all contributed to the altered mindset of the consumer.

In the name of planetary survival the need for slow fashion has given birth to a rising number of brands that prioritize durability over pure numbers, but consumers have yet to follow suit. Young shoppers in particular are still enticed to make purchase decisions that aren’t aligned with their environmental beliefs, as fast-changing trends remain the key factor in their choices (Joy, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang & Chan, 2012).

While trends have yet to learn this unyielding attitude that doesn’t change with each season (both literally and figuratively), fashion as a whole industry has made tremendous progress in the right direction.

Ethical production trumps quantity, while lasting items on offer have become the primary focus of many old and new brand names such as PACT apparel or People Tree, who bind fine craftsmanship with sustainability. Add to that the creation of authentic pieces that have character and that are deeply relatable, and you have a winning recipe for fashion success in the 21st-century climate.

Organic and recycled thoughts

As opposed to the “throw away” culture that has reigned supreme for decades on end, we’re now witnessing the growth of recyclable and reusable as the new go-to for long-lasting fashion items. Sustainably harvested fabrics and materials are in the center of production, while skin-safe and durable options such as organic cotton are at the forefront of the industry, as well, and the cross of the two qualities makes for a brilliant asset for quality-oriented consumers. Recycling, on the other hand, has also gained in popularity, and brands are doing their best to encourage their consumers to recycle and repurpose as opposed to reject their garments. Campaigns that invite their loyal customers to give their items back for repair, as the outdoor gear brand Patagonia has the habit to do, are leading the way into a new fashion era of mindful shopping and wearing.

Brand success, however, still depends on more than just their sustainable footsteps, as consumers’ decisions are easily swayed by poor in-store attributes and high prices (Chan & Wong, 2012). Such inconsistencies have the power to increase the dissonance between the consumer’s Earth-friendly attitudes and their final shopping choice – the latter may ultimately not reflect the former despite the ethical conundrum.

Fashion is no longer, if it ever was, as simple as “I need a pair of jeans, therefore, I’ll purchase the first one that fits”. But the digital rise has added a new layer of meaning to the consumerism game, and that is the notion of experience. We crave for our shopping endeavors to be deeply personal, crafted by brands to accommodate our needs, and the final product is only a fragment of the sale.

So, instead of mindlessly buying, we’d rather opt for just one item, the one that epitomizes an experience. Convenience, availability, uniqueness and the shopping environment are several influential ingredients in this equation, so thrift stores, second-hand and vintage stores along with the DIY movement have experienced a wave of revival and greater interest. They all fit with the modern consumers’ need for clothing as practical items and a desire for fashion as an expression of their authentic, personal style (Reiley & DeLong, 2011).

In this environment, spurred with movement from both the consumer and the designer end, fashion has the potential to change the future of consumerism on a more profound, emotional basis, and with longevity paired with style at the center of this struggle.

The fact that members of the millennial generation are the absolute rulers of the fashion world is, by now, a well-known one. However, the reasons behind this need to always be on top of the style game are still left for exploration and examination. This is precisely the question that we’ll be answering today. In a world where the vast majority of Baby Boomers are investing in health care and services, Gen X members in personal insurance and pensions, we’ll try to unveil the secret behind millennials’ preference to place apparel near the top of their list.

The pursuit of uniqueness

Image Source: Anton Dee on Unsplash

For millennials, there are very few things that can trump originality and authenticity, and fashion is one of the most evident, conspicuous manners in which to express oneself. With each new garment, each new outfit they’re telling the world who and how creative they are. This crave for authenticity has actually fostered quite a few changes in the fashion industry, the death of the logo being just one of them.

Yes, in order to cater to the needs of this generation, whose vast majority refuses to play the part of a walking advertisement, numerous companies have been forced to change and minimize their logos – case in point Abercrombie and Fitch who have removed the logo from their sweatshirts and tops altogether as well as Michael Kors who is one among many that have been forced to modify their designs aside from offering goods at a discounted price due to a dip in sales.

Easy access and value for money

Image Source: STIL on Unsplash

In the ‘olden days’ in order to shop, one would have to leave the house and browse numerous stores. Times have changed and now everyone can shop safely, especially the tech-savvy millennials who know everything there is to know about the world of online shopping. This again has had a huge impact on the way brands do business these days.

From cosmetics to apparel, brands are bending over backwards to connect with audiences, particularly through such platforms as Instagram, on which they showcase their latest products, not only directly, but through the endorsement of fashion bloggers as well as supermodels a lot of the times. More than that, knowing their target audience appreciates good value for money, the internet is also the place where brands give discounts and shopping deals.

Of course, online shopping also comes with the perk of checking in with peers and finding out whether a website is trustworthy and the goods worth the money; this generation is often accused of reckless spending, but this couldn’t be further from the truth as most millennials research and evaluate items to a great extent before purchasing. Finally, there is the sheer convenience of it – you don’t have to travel across the country (or the ocean) to get to your desired item.

This is particularly convenient for such countries as Australia, where online shopping has become a real lifesaver because, due to huge distances, physical shopping for most items would be a drag. So now, when amazing over shoulder bags are what one’s craving, a simple click of a few buttons will make them yours. With the ability to get to desired items without so much as a walk, and more often than not at a discounted price, what is there not to love about online shopping?

The future is green

Image Source: Bart Jaillet on Unsplash

While the fact that millennials appreciate good value for money, there are certain items they are definitely willing to spend extra on – sustainable offerings, at least according to a recent Nielsen global online study.  In terms of fashion, this means that most members of this generation will not shy away from splurging on items that are eco-friendly, made from durable and sustainable materials and manufactured by brands that foster fair trade and ethical practices. Although not exactly famous for brand loyalty (millennials will switch stores as soon as they get a better offer from another retailer), the study goes to show that they will stick with a brand if the brand in question ‘establishes a reputation for environmental stewardship’.

There is more than one reason for which fashion has become an essential component of a millennial’s persona, as we were able to depict here. Yes, they may be demanding and perhaps they have turned the world of fashion upside down, but mostly in a good way. After all, couldn’t we all stand to be a bit more unique, a lot more practical and whole lot more green?

Time flies over us, but leaves its shadow behind. ― Nathaniel Hawthorne

Recycling isn’t just good for the environment and for societal development, it holds huge potential for growth in the fashion arena too. Creativity is the driving engine and ultimate purpose of a designer’s work, but its expression isn’t limited to a steady stream of innovative styles. 

George B. Sproles in his study “Analysing Fashion Life Cycles – Principles and Perspectives”, stated that “Fashions evolve consistent with the theoretical product life cycle, having stages of introduction and adoption by fashion leaders, increasing public acceptance (growth), mass conformity (maturation) and the inevitable decline and obsolescence awaiting all fashions.”
However, at times when muses of fashion design fall silent, many a creator will turn to history in search of ideas and reinvent clothing items which used to be hip in bygone decades or centuries. 

Recycled pieces of fashion history have a habit of going pop again almost over night every once in a while. Blame it on conformism or the limited scope of human skin in need of coverage, but it’s still there. Denim, white shirts, and LBDs are ageless, and we’ve seen them worn as part of countless getup combos over the past couple of decades. On the other hand, there are many era-specific clothing items we’d hardly expect to see on a 21st-century catwalk – and yet, designers at times fish out these fashion relics and successfully reintroduce them into the limelight in a slightly revamped guise. The desire to be unique while drawing on pieces with a universal appeal is the cornerstone of contemporary design, as we can see from the biggest trends that are currently shaking up the fashion tree.
Fashion trends are dictated by creators who aren’t afraid to experiment and draw on the lessons from the past.



A piece of 19th-century attire with a heavy historical undertone (Leona Epstein,, the choker was reinstated into top fashion tiers on multiple occasions. Nowadays, though, 21st-century chokers have none of the connotations the tight necklace might have had in the past.

Namely, in late 19th century, women who wore thin red or black ribbon chokers were regarded as ladies of loose morale, and back in the Depression era, accessories such as black woven close-fitting necklaces were tacitly interpreted as a secret endorsement of lesbianism. Back in 1900s, Queen Alexandra of Denmark brought back the glory to the chic choker: the queen allegedly wore broad collars to hide a small scar on her neck. 

These days, chokers are hip again, but their display has little to do with sexual preferences – or moral flimsy, for that matter. A byword for timeless elegance, the tight necklace makes a perfect finishing touch for a fancy dress, and it can also be incorporated into everyday wear or runway-style clothing combinations to equally laudable effects.


Denim is another piece of fashion history that’s been heavily used – and abused – by clothing designers pressed for inspiration. Originally used to make workwear for miners whose attire had to withstand lots of tough love, denim went wildly popular among rebellious youth thanks to James Dean and Marlon Brando, and it has been going strong across the globe ever since.

In late 20th century, the use of denim spread from pants to jackets and trench coats: everyone had at least indigo-colored overall in their closet, and head-to-toe denim outfits were a common sight in the ‘90s. 

Today, traditional denim jackets are back in vogue, along with distressed and ripped jeans, and both ladies and gents are extremely fond of the heavy-duty blue fabric, both in its unblemished and abused guise. We’ll probably be seeing more of good, old blue jeans in the years to come: after all, denim’s so hard-wearing that its popularity may take centuries to wear off.


Image Source: Elite Daily

Corsets are back in trend these days, but their use in getup mixes is now quite different than it used to be back when the clothing item made a loud entrance on the fashion scene (Drea Leed, The close-fitting bodice has been in use since the 16th century, but it was only in 1700s and 1800s that the stay became an inevitable component of a lady’s attire. Back in those days, corsets were worn as an undergarment whose purpose was to restrain a lady’s curves and give her body a beautiful hourglass shape. The use of the corset as body-shaper persisted until World War I, when bodice-like undergarments gave way to bras.

Nowadays, corsets are no more an unpleasant piece of underwear ladies loathe fitting into: they have become a part of mainstream fashion, and are sometimes flashed around parties and fancy dinners sans any tops. A symbol of femininity, high style, and seduction, corsets now come in a host of styles and cuts, and are especially popular among Gothic fashionistas.


If your first association to lace is a wedding gown or Victorian dress, you’ve probably been living under a rock for the past few years. Lavish lace dresses (, 2016) are a major hit among fashion-forward ladies these days: just like their female ancestors in the 16th century, modern girls can’t resist the charisma of lavish ruffs in a range of cuts and designs. Though lace has always been a symbol of high fashion, it was in the 20th century that it saw its mass renaissance thanks to royal ladies like Queen Elizabeth II, Lady Diana, Grace Kelly, and Kate Middleton. 

Today, fancy frills and elaborate crochets are no longer a privilege of noblewomen as they used to be back in the past (Rosie Swash, Imogen Fox, The Guardian, 2011) a 21st-century princess will wear her lace every day, thank you. Catwalks, movie premieres, and similar vogue venues aren’t the only spot where you can catch a glimpse of lacy dresses: having stepped down the pedestal of high fashion, the lush material has taken to the streets, and is now as common a sight in nightclubs and marketplaces as it used to be at coronations and royal weddings.


Another piece of workwear turned fashion statement, bomber jackets (Jessica Bucci,, 2016) went pop back after World War II, and have since then been in vogue in many styles. Initially worn by aviators who needed sturdy protection from wind and freezing temperatures at high altitudes, the bomber jacket was embraced by civilians as of 1950s and has served a symbol of youth rebellion in the decades that ensued. 

Worn with ripped jeans, plain flannel shirts, and leather boots as part of a grunge-style getup, bomber jackets are now mainstream – or at least, as mainstream as they can be in the world where fashion statements are 100% unique even if they draw on time-honoured clothing items.


If you think heels are a symbol of a lady, you’d better think again. The sexy footwear that reigns catwalks today was once worn by men: King Henry II of England is said to have walked around in pointed-toe heeled footwear in an attempt to conceal his deformed toes, and knights of Richard the Lionhearted also wore heeled shoes, albeit for a reason that had more to do with horseback riding and stirrups than toe shape. The French Revolution took a bloody toll on one of the most fashion-forward European nations, and heel height was collateral damage: since 1794, European aristocrats wore heels sizing up to two inches, i.e. up until 1860, which brought the invention of sewing machine and a re-ignited love for heels among both royals and commoners.

Once a status symbol, heels jumped on the mass fashion wagon and became a part of everyday wear for many ladies. These days, fancy female shoes rock chunky platforms, Louboutin-inspired red bottoms, stiletto heels, and wedges, and few – if any – men would dare take them out for a walk around the block.

Fashion trends are dictated by creators who aren’t afraid to experiment and draw on the lessons from the past. Judging by clothing trends as they stand today, conformity is strong, but the need to be different while complying with widely accepted fashion trends is no less powerful (Samantha Lumbert,, Rochester Institute of Technology) . For this reason, it’s not a wonder that olden frills and fancy feathers sometimes pop up and go pop in a somewhat modernised guise. Repetitio mater studiorum est, as the adage goes, and it holds true in both life, art, and fashion as a form of artistic expression.